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Полидендроциты – недифференцированные клетки нервной системы

https://doi.org/10.18499/2225-7357-2022-11-1-66-73

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Аннотация

Клетки-предшественники олигодендроцитов, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) были впервые описаны более двух десятилетий назад. Новые методы маркировки выявили, что они являются самостоятельными клетками с высоким потенциалом репарации нервной ткани, и их классифицировали как четвертый тип глиальных клеток в дополнение к астроцитам, олигодендроцитам и микроглиальным клеткам. Другой термин, используемый для обозначения таких клеток – полидендроциты, что связано как с их морфологией, так и с развивающимися знаниями об их разнообразных функциях. OPCs играют важную роль в развитии и миелиногенезе у взрослых, давая начало олигодендроцитам, которые покрывают аксоны, обеспечивая изоляцию сигнала миелиновой оболочкой, что позволяет ускорить распространение потенциала действия и обеспечить высокую точность передачи без необходимости увеличения диаметра аксона. Потеря или отсутствие OPCs и, как следствие, отсутствие дифференцированных олигодендроцитов ассоциируется с потерей миелинизации и последующим нарушением неврологических функций. Демиелинизация характерна для множества заболеваний, таких как рассеянный склероз, болезнь Альцгеймера, шизофрения, а также детский церебральный паралич и когнитивные нарушения детского возраста. Кроме того, OPCs экспрессируют рецепторы для различных нейротрансмиттеров и подвергаются деполяризации мембраны, получая синаптические сигналы от нейронов. Исследованию функционала и возможностей использования полидендроцитов в качестве клеток-мишеней для лечения и профилактики заболеваний нервной ткани посвящено множество работ. В настоящее время в нашей стране нет работ, посвященных исследованию морфологии, функции и возможностей OPCs. В этом обзоре мы рассмотрели историю открытия полидендроцитов, их локализацию и миграционные потенции, а также возможности ремиелинизации посредством OPCs при гипоксическом повреждении в эмбриональном и постнатальном периоде.

Об авторах

Л. В. Вихарева
Тюменский государственный медицинский университет
Россия

Вихарева Лариса Владимировна – д-р. мед. наук, профессор, кафедра анатомии человека, топографической анатомии и оперативной хирургии

ул. Одесская, 54, Тюмень, 625023



Е. И. Новиков
Тюменский государственный медицинский университет
Россия

Новиков Евгений Игоревич

г. Тюмень



Е. С. Новикова
Западно-Сибирский медицинский центр Федерального медико-биологического агентства
Россия

Новикова Елизавета Сергеевна

г. Тюмень



А. В. Маргарян
Тюменский государственный медицинский университет
Россия

Маргарян Артур Ванушович

г. Тюмень



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Рецензия

Для цитирования:


Вихарева Л.В., Новиков Е.И., Новикова Е.С., Маргарян А.В. Полидендроциты – недифференцированные клетки нервной системы. Журнал анатомии и гистопатологии. 2022;11(1):66-73. https://doi.org/10.18499/2225-7357-2022-11-1-66-73

For citation:


Vikhareva L.V., Novikov E.I., Novikova E.S., Margaryan A.V. Polydendrocytes – undifferentiated cells of the nervous system. Journal of Anatomy and Histopathology. 2022;11(1):66-73. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.18499/2225-7357-2022-11-1-66-73

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